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Localization Resources

  • Apple Computer, Inc. Internationalization and Localization Resources (includes OS-X)

  • Character Entity References used in HTML4

  • Charset detection in Mozilla by Frank Yung-Fong Tang

  • Lists of supported charsets for various platforms and browsers
    • Internet Explorer
    • Java 2, Standard Edition, 1.3
    • Java 2, Standard Edition, 1.4.2
    • Microsoft
    • Mozilla: browser (from Mozilla source, courtesy Bob Jung)
      Bob notes: The above file has a long list of name-value pairs. The names are the recognized charset values used by Mozilla and Netscape 6 -- these are what you are allowed to use in your HTML or XML charset specifications. (The values are the internal names used by our Unicode converter.) But to determine which charset name you use in your server or in your content, you should refer to the IANA list for the preferred internet name which is sometimes one fo the aliases and not necessarily the officially registered name.
    • Mozilla: e-mail
    Common Sense Advisory is a research and consulting firm focused on the online and offline operations driving business globalization, internationalization, translation, and localization.

  • "Developing Multilingual Web Applications Using JavaServer Pages Technology," by Norbert Lindenberg

  • dmoz open directory containing 560+ organized links related to globalization

  • ELECT Online
    ELECT Online is a recently-launched independent portal for the localisation community. It has been developed as part of the European Union funded ELECT project and is hosted by the Localisation Resource Centre.

  • Global Application Developer Corner from Sun Microsystems
    The Sun Microsystems Global Application Developer Corner is a collection of information and resources to help developers globalize their applications. Resource material, sample code, testing tools, and useful links provide information for developers to learn more about software globalization.

  • GALA-Globalization and Localization Association

  • HTML Unleashed: Internationalizing HTML
    No book on HTML is complete without a section on the ways to overcome the pronounced Western bias in the language and to provide for its fruitful application in the worldwide multilingual environment. This chapter covers the main approaches to this problem, both those used by practicing webmasters all around the world and those devised by standard-setting bodies.

  • Information on ISO 8859-1

  • the i18n guy
    Tex Texin's site of internationalization, localization, standards, and amusements

    Barry Caplan's site featuring information on localization, internationalization and resources for creating global software.

  • International Font FAQ
    Lots of good information on international charsets and fonts. Lists fonts which are available free of charge,via the internet.

  • Internationalization and Localization Overview from the W3C, including a FAQ
    The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential as a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding.

  • Internationalization Testing
    Some internationalization (i18n) principles and practices on how to test and verify your product for global-readiness.

  • Introduction to Microsoft's MLang
    MLang implements a set of services that is designed to help make software that interacts with Internet data more international. More specifically, MLang helps solve problems presented by the multilingual environment that exists for software today. This article describes the services that are provided by the MLang Component Object Model (COM) object.

  • ISO 3166 country codes

  • ISO 639-2 (3-letter language codes)
    This is the official site of the ISO 639-2 Registration Authority and thus is the only one authorized by ISO. ISO 639 provides two sets of language codes, one as a two-letter code set (639-1) and another as a three-letter code set (this part of ISO 639) for the representation of names of languages. ISO 639-1 was devised primarily for use in terminology, lexicography and linguistics.

  • ITS Requirements Document (Requires membership in group lisa-its)

  • Java Internationalization - An Overview

  • Java internationalization links

  • Java Internationalization - Localization with ResourceBundles

  • Java Internationalization Tutorial

  • Lionbridge Blog Channels

  • Microsoft Global Developers' Site

  • Perl tutorial on locale handling
    Perl supports language-specific notions of data such as ``is this a letter'', ``what is the uppercase equivalent of this letter'', and ``which of these letters comes first''. These are important issues, especially for languages other than English--but also for English: it would be naEe to imagine that A-Za-z defines all the ``letters'' needed to write in English. Perl is also aware that some character other than '.' may be preferred as a decimal point, and that output date representations may be language-specific. The process of making an application take account of its users' preferences in such matters is called internationalization (often abbreviated as i18n); telling such an application about a particular set of preferences is known as localization (l10n).

  • A Practical Guide to Localization by Bert Esselink
    A Practical Guide to Localization by Bert Esselink has now been fully updated and revised to reflect the latest technologies, best practices, and industry developments. The book was written for technical translators, localization engineers, testing engineers, desktop publishers, project managers, and anyone else who may be involved in the release of multilingual products. This site contains references and links relevant to technical translation and localization.

  • Silicon Valley Localization Forum

  • Sun Software Product Internationalization Taxonomy

  • A Tutorial on Character Code Issues
    This document tries to clarify the concepts of character repertoire, character code, and character encoding especially in the Internet context. It specifically avoids the term character set, which is confusingly used to denote repertoire or code or encoding. ASCII, ISO 646, ISO 8859 (ISO Latin, especially ISO Latin 1), Windows character set, ISO 10646 (UCS), Unicode, UTF-8, UTF-7, MIME, and QP are used as examples. This document in itself does not contain solutions to practical problems with character codes (but see section Further reading). Rather, it gives background information needed for understanding what solutions there might be, what the different solutions do - and what's really the problem in the first place.

  • Unicode Consortium home page
    The Unicode Consortium is responsible for defining the behavior and relationships between Unicode characters, and providing technical information to implementers. The Consortium cooperates with ISO in refining the specification and expanding the character set.

  • Unicode Primer from The University of Michigan

    A portal to information about globalization, internationalization, localization and translation.

  • XenCraft
    Provides training on internationalization, localization, project management and the like

  • XML internationalization FAQ from

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